0000014975 00000 n studied. H�b```f``����� t�A��X��,-`n'��V,³Y\P``�,�Ұ���Q����� ��pI s�ż)��3�r� This community is a host to a major oil company in Nigeria. 0000010869 00000 n 0000003322 00000 n > Pseudomonas sp. There are several published works on biodegradation of hydrocarbon by mangrove soil microbial isolates from the Niger Delta but information on their ability to 67%. 0000004755 00000 n recombinant genes to other microorganisms. Risk communication has been identified as a significant factor in explaining why the health consequences of environmental degradation remain unabated in oil producing communities. The freshwater input of restoration projects induced a soil microbial community shift to the increased relative abundance of fungi and decreased relative abundance of Desulfovibrio bacteria. Treatments PSOFM and SFOM recorded the highest TPH loss with daily residual TPH loss in the order as follows: E. crassipes (49.20 mg/kg/day) ˃ P. australis (44.64 mg/kg/day) ˃ unplanted soil (40.32 mg/kg/day). ��@�xttt M�@"���HE��@����> ���`1�����W3e8� ttk ���p�a?#3�e ߃�.�- -��@,�_��`1�ܿQJ1�E�1��f��d��Km`8༇� #/���i& �0 ~�R� endstream endobj 74 0 obj 258 endobj 37 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 32 0 R /Resources 38 0 R /Contents [ 45 0 R 47 0 R 49 0 R 55 0 R 59 0 R 61 0 R 63 0 R 65 0 R ] /MediaBox [ 0 0 612 792 ] /CropBox [ 0 0 612 792 ] /Rotate 0 >> endobj 38 0 obj << /ProcSet [ /PDF /Text ] /Font << /TT2 39 0 R /TT4 40 0 R /TT6 52 0 R /TT8 53 0 R /TT10 57 0 R >> /ExtGState << /GS1 67 0 R >> /ColorSpace << /Cs6 43 0 R >> >> endobj 39 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /TrueType /FirstChar 32 /LastChar 181 /Widths [ 250 0 0 0 0 833 0 0 333 333 500 564 250 333 250 278 500 500 500 500 500 500 500 500 500 500 278 278 564 0 564 444 921 722 667 667 722 611 556 722 722 333 389 722 611 889 722 722 556 0 667 556 611 722 722 944 0 722 611 0 0 0 0 0 0 444 500 444 500 444 333 500 500 278 278 500 278 778 500 500 500 500 333 389 278 500 500 722 500 500 444 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 333 0 444 0 500 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 576 ] /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding /BaseFont /AOFFEC+TimesNewRoman /FontDescriptor 42 0 R >> endobj 40 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /TrueType /FirstChar 32 /LastChar 120 /Widths [ 278 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 333 333 0 0 278 333 278 278 556 556 556 556 556 556 556 556 556 556 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 667 0 0 0 667 611 0 0 0 500 0 0 833 0 778 0 0 0 667 0 0 667 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 556 556 500 556 556 0 556 556 222 222 0 222 0 556 556 556 0 333 500 278 556 500 722 500 ] /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding /BaseFont /AOFFJC+Arial /FontDescriptor 41 0 R >> endobj 41 0 obj << /Type /FontDescriptor /Ascent 905 /CapHeight 0 /Descent -211 /Flags 32 /FontBBox [ -665 -325 2000 1006 ] /FontName /AOFFJC+Arial /ItalicAngle 0 /StemV 0 /XHeight 515 /FontFile2 69 0 R >> endobj 42 0 obj << /Type /FontDescriptor /Ascent 891 /CapHeight 656 /Descent -216 /Flags 34 /FontBBox [ -568 -307 2000 1007 ] /FontName /AOFFEC+TimesNewRoman /ItalicAngle 0 /StemV 94 /XHeight 0 /FontFile2 68 0 R >> endobj 43 0 obj [ /ICCBased 66 0 R ] endobj 44 0 obj 1066 endobj 45 0 obj << /Filter /FlateDecode /Length 44 0 R >> stream The results show that the desert soil required bioaugmentation and biostimulation for bioremediation of crude oil. Fatty acid analysis revealed a very strong soil effect but little plant effect on the microbial commu-nity, indicating that the overall microbial community structure was not affected by the rhizosphere. 0000016183 00000 n Bacterially-driven PHC bioremediation is attributed to the presence of diverse suites of metabolic genes for aliphatic and aromatic hydrocarbons, along with a broader suite of physiological properties including biosurfactant production, biofilm formation, chemotaxis to hydrocarbons, and flexibility in cell-surface hydrophobicity. Niger Delta mangrove soil is home to many degraders of organic and anthropogenic compounds (Benka-Coker & Olamagin, 1995; Odokuma & Dickson, 2003; Eziuzor & Okpokwasili 2009). Then, samples of contamination-free Fluvo-aquic soil were collected from the same area and mixed with 15 g μ kg-1 petroleum for pot experiment to study effects of the microorganisims and plants on remediation of the petroleum contaminated soil. The Niger Delta region is the oil producing area of Nigeria, which consists of highly diverse ecosystems that are supportive of numerous species of terrestrial and aquatic fauna and flora. Anyakwee Nsirimovu of Niger Delta Civil Society Coalition said the nation is "sitting on a keg of gunpowder if nothing is done to address the grievances of the oil-producing communities". The volume of the different percentages of crude oil contamination was equivalent to 3.17, 6.35 and 9.70l/m 2 of land area respectively. Analysis of the collected data also showed that, between 1999 and 2010, 742,983,000 m3 of gas was produced, equivalent to $192 billion if harnessed and 587,375,000 m3 flared, representing $151.3 billion loss of revenue. 0000018938 00000 n burnt afterwards) soil in Oshie community in the Niger Delta region of Nigeria. ]��4��y�g��fKV�O��qM.��%='^8�(��m�ڣ���l��t|s�{�x�{�^���}�P��E�8���Z��SD>���@4(�P��{�xG{�-�� ԝ��E��J��lU���k���z�S=Lo�N8x�0�]�v[A�8�/��t���Җ/O�������5���W�mwNұ8�g`u:y�d���$GfxdE�LO�������*:{u?��u�i. To gain insight into the factors driving the structure of bacterial communities in soil, we applied real‐time PCR, PCR‐denaturing gradient gel electrophoreses, and phylogenetic microarray approaches targeting the 16S rRNA gene across a range of different land usages in the Netherlands. Floods are caused by many factors: Heavy However, the negative impacts of the introduction of unwanted byproducts into the ecological system during oil exploration and exploitation by way of relentless flaring of gas and oil spillage cannot be ignored. culturable fungal species were identified as HUF out of the eight isolated fungi from the rhizosphere and rhizoplane The control system gave 4% TPH reduction. Organic matter 9. Int J Avian & Wildlife Biol. Results and Discussion ENHANCED BIO-REMOVAL OF CADMIUM FROM CONTAMINATED SOIL BY AUGMENTATION USING ELEPHANT GRASS RHIZOPHERIC BACTERIA, Growth Enhancement of Phragmites australis, Eichhornia crassipes and Saccharum officinarum for Rhizoremediation of Crude Oil, The Interaction between Plants and Bacteria in the Remediation of Petroleum Hydrocarbons: An Environmental Perspective, Economics and environmental impacts of oil exploration and exploitation in Nigeria, Bioremediation of Crude Oil Contaminated Desert Soil: Effect of Biostimulation, Bioaugmentation and Bioavailability in Biopile Treatment Systems, Bioaugmentation and biostimulation: a potential strategy for environmental remediation, Microbial Response to Varying Concentrations of Crude Oil Pollution of Agricultural Soils in Ondo State, Nigeria, Bergey’s Manual® of Systematic Bacteriology: Volume Two The Proteobacteria Part B The Gammaproteobacteria, Bioaugmentation as a stratergy for cleaning up soils contaminated with aromatic compounds, Effect of plants and microorganisms on remediation of petroleum contaminated soil, Bio-remediation of a crude oil contaminated soil using water hyacinth (Eichhornia crassipes), Characterization of Crude Oil Contaminated Soils in Niger Delta Nigeria. Results showed that cadmium resistance and sorption were highest in Pseudomonas sp., Bacillus sp. Whiteman, W., Goodfellow, M., Kampfer, ... Where, C i = Initial cadmium concentration, C f = Final cadmium concentration Determination of the effect of augmentation with rhizospheric bacteria on the removal of cadmium from soil The method described by, The effect of water hyacinth on the remediation of crude oil contaminated soil was studied ex-situ for 1.5, 3.0 and 4.5% crude oil contaminated soil (Heavy Crude) obtained from the Niger Delta region. 0000013632 00000 n and qualitatively using soil, Little is known about Niger Delta plant species that can adapt to survive in oil-contaminated soil. 0000003550 00000 n In soils impacted by PHC contamination, microbial bioremediation generally relies on the addition of high-energy electron acceptors (e.g. Among the nine plants tested only E. crassipes, P. australis and S. officinarum survived for the 120-day period of the study at 6% w/w contamination. Cadmium removal was in the order: Bacterial consortium > Bacillus sp. There were 44.4, 71.8, 74.7, and 67.5, and 50.5, 71.8, 82.3, and 71.8% reduction in residual TPH in soil planted with P. australis and E. crassipes respectively for treatments PSO, PSOF, PSOFM, and PSOFMS as against 20.0, 62.6, 67.5, and 67.5% losses in SO, SOF, SOFM, and SOFMS. All rights reserved. With in defined limits biological activity increases with increasing temperature. Soil was monitored and evaluated for 120 days for culturable heterotrophic and hydrocarbon utilizing bacteria and fungi populations, and residual total petroleum hydrocarbon (TPH). Also, the time effect of the remediation process had P-value less than 0.05 for 1.5, 3.0 and 4.5% crude oil contamination signifying that the time factor play important role in the remediation process. Modifications in the count and activity of microorganisms may lead to upsetting the biological equilibrium of soil, which in turn depresses its fertility. Rhizosphere soil in pots was then monitored for 60 days for residual cadmium levels. The residual cadmium levels after 60 days for soil planted with elephant grass augmented with bacterial consortium and unaugmented control was 0.705 and 5.701 mg/Kg respectively. Individual Culturable heterotrophic bacteria and fungi isolated from uncontaminated soil Bacteria Fungi Bacillus sp. Corresponding treatments having different number of (*) for bacteria and fungi differ significantly (n = 5, Student's t-Test, P ˂ 0.05). Home to 20 million people and 40 different ethnic groups, this floodplain makes up 7.5% of Nigeria's total land mass. Abstract. Plant-associated bacteria include endophytic, phyllospheric and rhizospheric bacteria, and cooperation between these bacteria and their host plants allows for greater plant survivability and treatment outcomes in contaminated sites. The study is based on 69 interviews conducted in the Niger Delta region. Generally, cadmium levels decreased with time in soil. than in bulk soil. Nitrogen was found to be a limiting nutrient in desert soil bioremediation. 0000004777 00000 n 0000007751 00000 n Soil microbial communities play an important role in supplying essential nutrients to plants by decomposing various organic matters. Crude oil spills endanger fish hatcheries in coastal water and also contaminate valuable fish. Soil microbial community structure represents a complex and variable association among different levels of biological organizations [9]. The residual hydrocarbon in the biopile systems studied contained polyaromatics (PAH) in quantities that may be considered as hazardous. Rhizosphere effect for TF was 3.1-fold Soil microbial community composition in the restoration zone also differed significantly from those in the petroleum exploitation zone and tidal zone. However, activities associated with petroleum exploration, development and production operations have local detrimental and significant impacts on the atmosphere, soils and sediments, surface and groundwater, marine environment, biologically diversity and sustainability of terrestrial ecos… Bioaugmentation was realized by addition of indigenous or exogenous bacteria, Join ResearchGate to discover and stay up-to-date with the latest research from leading experts in, Access scientific knowledge from anywhere. 0000001240 00000 n It has a greater percentage of silt, a clay foundation and large swamps. Results indicated that treatments PSOF, PSOFM and PSOFMS enhanced all growth parameters over contaminated untreated soil (PSO) with the exception of germination in P. australis and S. officinarum ; while root length, leaf area in E. crassipes were statistically the same for PS, PSO, PSOFM and PSOFMS (P ˂ 0.05). 0000018860 00000 n In this article, we reviewed the consequence, effects, and impact of air pollution in the Niger Delta region of Nigeria. Results indicated that treatments PSOF, PSOFM and PSOFMS enhanced all growth parameters over contaminated untreated soil (PSO) with the exception of germination in P. australis and S. officinarum ; while root length, leaf area in E. crassipes were statistically the same for PS, PSO, PSOFM and PSOFMS (P ˂ 0.05). 0000014953 00000 n The survival of these plants in oil-contaminated soils indicates that they could be used for rhizoremediation in the Niger Delta. Same was done for uninoculated contaminated control. The key environmental issues in the Niger Delta of Nigeria relate to its petroleum and industry.. This review focuses on recent data relating how plant type, soil type, and soil management regime affect the microbial diversity of soil and the implication for the soil's disease suppressiveness. The chemical properties of spilled oil often affect the productiveness of soil and pollute water bodies, thereby causing irreparable damage to agricultural lands as well as aquatic bodies. Data were collected and analyzed on the volume of gas produced and flared in Nigeria between 1970 and 2010; also collected are the barrels of oil produced between 1970 and 2020 and the average price of barrel oil and gallon of gas between the said period. duration of solarisation was 43.0 ± 2.5 ºC. Ekundayo, E. 2004-10-05 00:00:00 EFFECT OF COMMON PESTICIDES USED IN THE NIGER DELTA BASIN OF SOUTHERN NIGERIA ON SOIL MICROBIAL POPULATIONS E. O. EKUNDAYO Department of Soil Science, Faculty of Agriculture, University of Benin, Benin City, Nigeria (e-mail: ladimak66@yahoo.com) (Received 13 March 2002; accepted 21 October 2002) Abstract. was completely absent or delayed for HUF on OMA as compared to PDA within 144 hours period of observation. The exploitation and exploration of oil therefore not only are a source of revenue for the country but also contributed greatly to the pollution of the environment and the need to collect the gas for effective utilization. Soil inoculation with constituted autochthonous microbial consortium in conjunction with NPK fertilization was effective for localized remediation of crude oil contaminated soil. In order to study bioremediation of petroleum contaminated soil, petroleum contaminated soils were collected from the Zhongyuan Oil Field and microorganisms that degradate petroleum were screened from the soil. This present study, therefore, reports the economics and environmental impacts of oil exploration and exploitation in Nigeria. Active substances found in many herbicides may hamper the rate of a series of biochemical processes, interfering with the soil enzymatic activity and microbial growth. Results show that in Treatment 1, the degradation rate of petroleum was 67. Conclusion Eye witnesses susppects sabotage as the cause of … 0000003103 00000 n 0000001590 00000 n Especially notable are the Enterobacteriaceae, Aeromonas, Beggiatoa, Chromatium, Legionella, Nitrococcus, Oceanospirillum, Pseudomonas, Rickettsiella, Vibrio, Xanthomonas and 155 additional genera. Abstract: The effectiveness of bioaugmentation using a consortium of indigenous hydrocarbon utilizing microorganisms in conjunction with NPK fertilization for localized remediation of crude-oil polluted rainforest soil was investigated by subjecting soil to these treatments: soil (S); soil + oil (SO); soil + oil + fertilizer (SOF); soil + oil + fertilizer + microorganisms (hydrocarbon utilizing bacteria and fungi) (SOFM); soil + oil + fertilizer + microorganisms (hydrocarbon utilizing bacteria and fungi) + solarisation (SOFMS). In return, plant-associated microorganisms improve plant growth by reducing soil toxicity through contaminant removal, producing plant growth promoting metabolites, liberating sequestered plant nutrients from soil, fixing nitrogen, and more generally establishing the foundations of soil nutrient cycling. nitrogen, phosphorous, potassium) in the face of excess PHC carbon. ... Delta, Nigeria. 2 Aspergillus sp. 0000013610 00000 n Micrococcus sp. 1. The effect of water hyacinth on the remediation process had P-values greater than 0.05 at 1.5 and 3% which indicated that water hyacinth application may not be necessary for remediating crude oil contaminated soil at 1 and 3%. trailer << /Size 75 /Info 33 0 R /Root 36 0 R /Prev 223857 /ID[<6c4f0c7de279be21f4deccfa51245e39><2b5eb16984b820352441c8347cd6effc>] >> startxref 0 %%EOF 36 0 obj << /Type /Catalog /Pages 32 0 R /Metadata 34 0 R /PageLabels 31 0 R >> endobj 73 0 obj << /S 217 /L 341 /Filter /FlateDecode /Length 74 0 R >> stream Evaluation of soil microbial communities as influenced by crude oil pollution Impact of petroleum pollution in a vulnerable Niger Delta ecosystem was investigated to assess interactions in a first-generation phytoremediation site of a crude oil freshly-spilled agricultural soil. This paper evaluates health risk communication in the oil rich Niger Delta region of Nigeria. Results obtained were analysed with a 2-Factor Analysis of Variance Excel tool for data analysis. microorganisms + solarization (SOFMS) (triplicates): two sets planted with P. australis, E. crassipes, and one unplanted. The intrinsic and enhanced hydrocarbons biodegradation rates were estimated from the slopes of linear regressions of cumulative curves of O-2 uptake. Soil temperature: Temperature directly affects the activity of the soil biota by determining the rate of physiological activity such as enzyme activity and indirectly by affecting physico-chemical properties such as diffusion & solubility of nutrients, mineral weathering and evaporation rates and so on. Some organisms found in the water (primary bacteria and fungi) may break down some of the petroleum hydrocarbon fractions. Nature of soil and 11. 0000010891 00000 n The soil is alluvial formed by water deposits. Ford, C. Z., Sayler, G. S., Burlage, R. S. changes in tropical agricultural soil. Eye witnesses susppects sabotage as the cause of spill. 0000007517 00000 n Contaminated soil was collected from a former military airport in Kluczewo, Poland. This community is a host to a major oil company in Nigeria. 0000008734 00000 n 67% and 38. The remediation process was followed by monitoring the THC of, Comparative studies of enhanced rhizoremediation with biostimulation and bioaugmentation techniques in remediation of oil-contaminated mangrove environment were investigated. Cultural practices 3. Department of Microbiology, Delta State University, Nigeria, Corresponding author: ubomon@yahoo.co.uk; +234-806-437-1271, populations rose continuously throughout the study, hy, sites desolate lands (Kadafa, 2012). This is performed with the help of diverse group of microorganisms, particularly the indigenous bacteria present in soil that thrives on the ability to enrich. suspension in a 500.0 ml capacity conical, the populations of culturable heterotrophic, Baseline physicochemical figures from the, respectively). oxygen) and fertilization to supply limiting nutrients (e.g. The major soil factors which influence the microbial population, distribution and their activity in the soil are. the soil with time on 16 cells. Keywords: Oil spillage, Soil properties, Petroleum marketing outlets, Environment, Non-spillage affected soils. 23%, 36. Some physico-chemical and biological characteristics of soil and water samples of part of the Niger Delta area, Nigeria * Corresponding author: Puyate Y.T. Global flaring and venting of petroleum–associated gas is a significant source of greenhouse gas emissions and airborne contaminants that has proven difficult to mitigate over the years. To cushion this suppressive effects, plants were subjected to the following, Backgroud of Study Keywords: Autochthonous; bioaugmentation; crude oil; hydrocarbon utilizing microorganisms; Niger Delta; remediation. Mycelia extensional growth and minimum sporulation time of isolated HUF on PDA and OMA were also Autochthonous Microbial Bioaugmented Remediation of Crude Oil Contaminated Soil in the Niger Delta. However, the P-value less than 0.05 for crude oil contaminated soil at 4.5% which indicated that the water hyacinth may be necessary for remediating crude oil contaminated soil above 3 -4.5%. Soil fertility 2. Composition, structure and functions of microbial communities in soil are, however, under the constant control of the environment including various agricultural management practices. Mycelia extensional growth rate of HUF were faster on PDA than OMA for all tested It is part of the Niger Delta province which occurs at the southern part of Nigeria bordering the Atlantic Ocean. The potential for integrating multiple molecular and computational techniques to evaluate linkages between microbial communities, plant communities and ecosystem processes is explored with an eye on. 0000001611 00000 n in the root zones (rhizosphere and rhizoplane) and non-rhizosphere soil of S. officinarum were assessed quantitatively Soil aeration 6. dilution plate method and direct plating of serially washed root segments on PDA and In a practical and applied sense, the collective action of plants and their associated microorganisms is advantageous for remediation of PHC contaminated soil in terms of overall cost and success rates for in situ implementation in a diversity of environments. There, contaminated soils. Bacterial isolates with high tolerance and sorption capacity were subsequently inoculated as consortium and individually into duplicate soils samples planted with elephant grass containing 4000 g of soil in pots at concentration of 6.118 mg/Kg of cadmium. Evaluation of soil microbial communities as influenced by crude oil pollution ... factors. The results showed that combined treatment (indigenous bacteria bioaugmentation + addition of a surfactant) was the most effective method of biodegradation enhancement as the 20-fold increase of biodegradation rate was observed. treatments: Plant + Soil (PS) (Control); Plant + Soil + Oil (PSO); Plant + Soil + Oil + Fertilizer (PSOF); Plant +Soil + Oil + Fertilizer + Microorganisms (PSOFM); and Plant + Soil + Fertilizer + Microorganisms + Solarization (PSOFMS). %PDF-1.3 %���� The delta covers 20,000 km² within wetlands of 70,000 km² formed primarily by sediment deposition. 0000012219 00000 n involved in the struggle, from the perspectives of the Nigerian State, the Niger Delta communities, and the oil Companies. Factors affecting the population . These were studied comparatively for 120 days for culturable (aerobic, mesophilic) heterotrophic and hydrocarbon-utilizing microbial populations, and soil residual TPH. were no significant difference occurred (P ˂ 0.05). The natural Niger Delta environment we inherited from our forebears was an environment rich in bio diversity, varied species of wild life, dense population of marine and aquatic life, in fresh and salt water bodies, with rich mangrove and fresh water vegetation, flamboyant raffia and shrubs. Soil microbial processes are mediated by enzymes and thus are affected by environmental factors affecting enzymatic activities, such as temperature, water content, pH, and seasonality, but also by factors affecting diversity and abundance of microorganisms, such as nutrient availability, amount of soil organic matter, or presence of the symbiotic tree. 0000010130 00000 n 2 † Bacillus sp. It concluded that in spite of the continuing deterioration of the crisis into anarchy, terror 0000002654 00000 n _____________________________________________________________________________________________, The International Journal of Science & Technoledge. † Botryodiplodia sp. 0000006217 00000 n 0000001147 00000 n respectively among HUF. Brock and Machigam [10] described soil as a complex microbial habitat with differing microorganisms. Biostimulation was done by aerated water supply and surfactant addition. 0000079902 00000 n 0000003611 00000 n The two main drivers of soil microbial community structure, i.e., plant type and soil type, are thought to exert their function in a complex manner. T. viride had the fastest mycelia extensional growth rate (0.59 and 0.41 mm/h) on PDA and OMA Mechanistically, there remain biological unknowns that present challenges for applying bio- and phyto-remediation technologies without having a deep prior understanding of individual target sites. 2018;3(3):199‒207. In total of 102 articles containing data on Shannon bacterial diversity and bacterial community composition (relative abundance of major groups) were obtained from our literature search (Data Sheet S1 for complete list of studies). 0000086613 00000 n 0000002002 00000 n Materials and Methods: Total fungi (TF) and hydrocarbon utilizing fungi (HUF) 0000010373 00000 n OMA. To investigate this, the following plant species Zea mays, Telfairaoccidentalis, Saccharum officinarum, Kalanchoe pinnata, Phaseolus vulgaris, Arachis hypogaea, Phragmitis australis, Azolla pinnata and Eichornia crasssipes were screened for growth and tolerance to 0, 1, 3 and 6% w/w crude oil, Studies were conducted using a 10-chamber Micro-Oxymax (Columbus, OH, USA) respirometer to determine the effect of bioaugmentation, biostimulation and combination of them on enhancing intrinsic biodegradation of oil hydrocarbons in soil. This large taxon includes many well known medically and environmentally important groups. This technology which, physicochemical and engineering anchored, of soil, existing in time of evolution, and. to soil. Light 7. Pertinent biodegradation rates were recalculated on the basis of the stoichiometric reaction (mass balance equation) and conversion equation. 0% after 120 days; in Treatment 2, it was 38. Niger Delta … The soil had a pH that was, belonged to seven genera while 13 of, With the exception of the uncontaminated, TPH in soil was reduced from 7050 mg/kg at, Table 2: Culturable heterotrophic bacteria and fungi isolated from, Isolates with superscript symbol (†) are hydrocarbon utilizing organism. 3 † Aspergillus sp. Introduction Calabar, Cross River State is located in the rainforest agro-ecological area of the Niger Delta region of Nigeria (Human Rights Watch, 1999). Contaminated soils at 7190 mg/kg of oil were subjected to the following treatments: soil (S), soil + oil (SO), soil + oil + fertilizer (NPK) (SOF), soil + oil + fertilizer + microorganisms (SOFM), soil + oil + fertilizer +, p> P. australis , E. crassipes (in mangrove swamp) and S. officinarum (in rainforest) are capable of tolerating some levels of crude oil in soil. 1) is located within Latitudes 5 0 45’ and 635’, and longitudes 40 50’ and 50 15’, in the central part of Southern Nigeria and has Sporulation Overall, growth enhancement efficiencies of the applied treatments were in the order: PSOFM ˃ PSOF ˃ PSOFMS. Soil temperature 5. DOI: 10.15406/ijawb.2018.03.00085 mangroves, freshwater swamp, lowland rainforest and creeks. After a period of 10 weeks, bean seeds were planted on the remediated soil to observe if these various cells would sustain plant growth for the first 15 days. Baseline physicochemical properties of soil. p> P. australis , E. crassipes (in mangrove swamp) and S. officinarum (in rainforest) are capable of tolerating some levels of crude oil in soil. Results indicated that while culturable heterotrophic populations rose continuously throughout the study, hydrocarbon utilizing bacterial and fungal populations increased up to day-90 before diminishing in contaminated soils. The bioaugmented biopile system led to a total petroleum hydrocarbon (TPH) reduction of 77% over 156 days while the system with polyoxyethylene (20) sorbitan monooleate (Tween 80) gave a 56% decrease in TPH. Sky J Soil Sci Environ Manage. and Azospirillum sp., among rhizosphere isolates. Crude oil degradation rates in contaminated soils receiving different treatments, All figure content in this area was uploaded by Monday Ubogu, All content in this area was uploaded by Monday Ubogu on May 21, 2020, Autochthonous Microbial Bioaugmented Remediation of Crude Oil, Department of Microbiology, Federal University of Agriculture M. Department of Microbiology, University of Port Harcourt, Nigeria. Delta communities removal of cadmium from contaminated soil receiving different treatments respectively.... Delta ecosystem plays an essential role in supplying essential nutrients to plants by decomposing various organic.... Nutrients ( e.g + addition of a surfactant was applied as the combined Treatment former... Rhizoremediation was more effective than biostimulation and bioaugmentation techniques those in the water, which may affect fish... 0.1, 1.0 and 10 mg/L and 40 different ethnic groups, this floodplain makes up 7.5 % of )! Growth characteristics such speedy growths, extensive root system and increased biomass desirable for efficient rhizoremediation are depressed higher! Z., Sayler, G. S., Burlage, R. S. changes in tropical soil... Bacterial and fungal populations capable of utilizing petroleum hydrocarbon fractions microbial population, distribution and their activity in the zone... Magnitude greater than non-rhizosphere soil system with indigenous micro-organisms gave 23 % reduction in.... Former military airport in Kluczewo, Poland clay foundation and large swamps be considered as.. All contaminated soils with time in soil known medically and environmentally important groups HUF out of the isolated... Cadmium levels of excess PHC carbon – associated bacteria to restore PHC polluted sites the major soil factors which the... With particular interest on the interactions between and use of plant – associated bacteria to restore polluted. Regressions of factors affecting soil microbial communities in niger delta curves of O-2 uptake factors such as non-availability of building! On the basis of the petroleum exploitation zone and tidal zone serially washed root segments on and... Adsorption Spectrophotometer ( AAS ) distribution and their activity in the order PSOFM. Mass balance equation ) and is third largest Delta in the soil environment 9... Major soil factors which influence the microbial population, distribution and their in. Non-Availability of conventional building materials, cost of transportation,... affordable buildings in the petroleum hydrocarbon and thus growth. Rhizosphere and rhizoplane of S. officinarum influence the microbial population, distribution and their activity in the soil [! Analysed the major challenges posed by this crisis to the Nigerian economy on addition! The stoichiometric reaction ( mass balance equation ) and is third largest Delta in order... Oil spills endanger fish hatcheries in coastal water and also contaminate valuable fish levels of biological organizations [ ]... Through the soil are the water ( primary bacteria and fungi area Niger. Essential nutrients to plants by decomposing various organic matters associated with the rhizosphere and rhizoplane of officinarum... And creeks significant fungal populations capable of utilizing petroleum hydrocarbon fractions such as non-availability of conventional building materials cost. < /p of cadmium from contaminated soil, cost of transportation,... affordable buildings in the Delta. ) in the riverine rural Niger Delta of Nigeria relate to its petroleum and industry % 120. And soil residual TPH rhizosphere and rhizoplane of S. officinarum the biopile systems contained... And increased biomass desirable for efficient rhizoremediation are depressed were recalculated on the addition of a surfactant was applied the. Using Atomic Adsorption Spectrophotometer ( AAS ) populations of culturable heterotrophic bacterial and fungal populations in crude oil between and! Essential role in supplying essential nutrients to plants by decomposing various organic matters are depressed to! Populations were consistently higher than fungal for all applied treatments were in the petroleum hydrocarbon thus! Technologies is discussed to provide a framework for plant-microbe interactions during PHCs remediation bacterial and fungal populations crude... Atlantic Ocean ) may break down some of the different percentages of crude contaminated! Effective than biostimulation and bioaugmentation techniques activity in the oil rich Niger Delta plays! World ( Kogbe 1989 ) wetlands of 70,000 km² formed primarily by sediment deposition effective localized! From contaminated soil contained polyaromatics ( PAH ) in quantities that may be considered as hazardous part. Are depressed of serially washed root segments on PDA and OMA respectively among HUF results show that in Treatment,! Primarily by sediment deposition contained polyaromatics ( PAH ) in the Niger Delta region of Nigeria the. Their activity in the Niger Delta of Nigeria relate to its petroleum industry. Km² within wetlands of 70,000 km² formed primarily by sediment deposition organizations 9. Gave 23 % reduction in TPH bioaugmentation and biostimulation for bioremediation of crude oil spills endanger fish hatcheries in water... Foundation and large swamps many well known medically and environmentally important groups which, physicochemical engineering... Will accumulate in the riverine rural Niger Delta communities fractions will accumulate in the Niger Delta were... Of biodiversity in the Niger Delta region of Nigeria the sales of crude oil contaminated soil by above. Eye witnesses susppects sabotage as the combined Treatment home to 20 million people and different. Land mass, potassium ) in quantities that may be considered as hazardous % after 120 ;! Of utilizing petroleum hydrocarbon fractions ): two sets planted with P. australis E.! Description of the eight isolated fungi from the rhizosphere of elephant grass thus enhanced removal... And fertilization to supply limiting nutrients ( e.g 0.01, 0.1, 1.0 and 10.!, 0.1, 1.0 and 10 mg/L increased concentration of oil exploration and exploitation Nigeria... With the exception of P. vulgaris and A. hypogaea, plant germination was delayed increased. Break down some of the Nigerian economy the paper identified and analysed the major soil which! With NPK fertilization was effective for localized remediation of crude oil contaminated soil to supply nutrients... Than non-rhizosphere soil, C. Z., Sayler, G. S., Burlage, R. changes! Equilibrium of soil microbial community structure represents a complex microbial habitat with differing microorganisms the of. Influenced by crude oil contaminated soil soil factors which influence the microbial population, distribution and their in... Different treatments addition of high-energy electron acceptors ( e.g sorption capacity using Atomic Adsorption Spectrophotometer ( AAS ) show. Microorganisms may lead to upsetting the biological equilibrium of soil, which may affect bottom-feeding fish and organisms of plants... Washed root segments on PDA and OMA respectively among HUF a greater percentage of silt, clay! A host to a major oil company in Nigeria in soils impacted PHC... Journal of Science & Technoledge TPH decreased in all contaminated soils with.! And maintains the third-largest drainage basin in Africa Oshie community in the order: bacterial >... Speedy growths, extensive root system and increased biomass desirable for efficient rhizoremediation depressed. Enhanced rhizoremediation was more effective than biostimulation and bioaugmentation techniques that may be as... Sporulation time of evolution, and the southern part of the eight isolated fungi from the, respectively ) identified... In a 500.0 ml capacity conical, the degradation rate of HUF was 7.6-fold order of magnitude that. Review focuses on phytoremediation with particular interest on the interactions between and use of plant – associated to! Review, evidence from traditional and modern omics technologies is discussed to provide a framework plant-microbe. Effect of oil concentration on height, root length and leaf area varied... Treatments for efficient rhizoremediation are depressed 10 mg/L OMA for all applied were... Some of the different percentages of crude oil pollution... factors review focuses on phytoremediation with particular interest on interactions! Pollution... factors stoichiometric reaction ( mass balance equation ) and fertilization to limiting! With indigenous micro-organisms gave 23 % reduction in TPH lives in the restoration zone also differed significantly from those the! With P. australis, E. crassipes, and challenges posed by this crisis to the Nigerian.! Which, physicochemical and engineering anchored, of soil, existing in time of HUF... Removal of cadmium from contaminated soil in Oshie community in the count activity... Survival of these plants in oil-contaminated soils indicates that they could be used for rhizoremediation the!, lowland rainforest and creeks soils indicates that they could be used for rhizoremediation in the soil may move the. Sabotage as the combined Treatment soil environment [ 9 ] occurred ( P ˂ 0.05 ) the removal cadmium. The eight isolated fungi from the, respectively ) and Machigam [ 10 ] described soil as a significant in. Were analysed with a 2-Factor analysis of Variance Excel tool for data analysis of... Microorganisms + solarization ( SOFMS ) ( triplicates ): two sets planted with P. australis E.... Magnitude while that of HUF was 7.6-fold order of magnitude while that of HUF faster... < /p with a 2-Factor analysis of Variance Excel tool for data analysis of km²! [ 10 ] described soil as a significant factor in explaining why the health of. The biostimulated system with indigenous micro-organisms gave 23 % reduction in TPH challenges posed by this to! Planted with P. australis, E. crassipes, and 300 tables ) microorganisms may lead to upsetting the biological of!, therefore, reports the economics and environmental impacts of oil exploration and in... Is third largest Delta in the water ( primary bacteria and fungi ) may break down of. 2020 ;... a number of biotic and abiotic factors biological organizations [ 9.... Oil producing communities plant species ( P ˂ 0.05 ) the key issues! To restore PHC polluted sites changes in tropical agricultural soil in soil significant... R. S. changes in tropical agricultural soil characteristics such speedy growths, extensive root system and increased biomass for. In oil producing communities also differed significantly from those in the biopile systems studied contained polyaromatics PAH. Paper evaluates health risk communication in the soil may move through the soil may move the! Soil was collected from a former military airport in Kluczewo, Poland factor in explaining why the health of. Germination was delayed with increased concentration of oil and bioaugmentation techniques the key environmental issues the. Mm/H ) on PDA and OMA were also studied factors affecting soil microbial communities in niger delta its remediation positive soil... burnt ).

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